PBT STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION
GRAMMAR REVIEW: SIMPLE SENTENCES

 

 

University of California, Davis

 

 

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SIMPLE SENTENCE: VERB

 

1.  With the passing of time and the encroachment of people, the habitat of gorillas __________ to decrease.

continuing
which continue
continues
that it has continued

2.  Sugar intake, particularly that of refined sugar, ________ curtailed by most overweight people wishing to lessen their corpulence.

must being
which
must
must
be
must

3.  In recent months, the final mapping of the human genome ________ the range of medical treatments and cures available to those suffering from various diseases .

has extended
extends
will
extend
will
have extended

4.  Intelligent life on other planets, while remaining an intriguing possibility, ________ yet to be discovered .

has
has
been
has
not
have

5.  Despite being basically arboreal in nature, koalas ________ to inhabit a specific territory and range of some 30 square miles.

knowing
which
know
are
knowing
are
known

6.  Initially elected as a labor leader, Jimmy Hoffa _________ mysteriously.

vanishing
who
vanished
vanished
vanishes

7. Broccoli _________ best in gardens having loose, well-composted soil, and full sunlight.

had grown
grows
growing
which
grows

8. Many of the novels of Kurt Vonnegut __________ a remarkable skepticism about the ultimate value of technological advances.

display
will
have displayed
they
display
had
displayed

9. Because of copper's conductivity, it __________ for housing electrical cords and circuitry.

values
is
valued
is
being valuable
has
valued

10. Numerous performances of Mozart's operas __________ in Austria long before the beginning of the 19th century.

perform
had
been performed
had
performed
were
performing

11. The memory of Juarez ___________ in Mexico more than that of any other man.

has venerated
venerates
will venerate
is venerated

12. At the railway station, the gray morning light __________ to filter in between the heavy stone pillars upon throng of straw-hatted peasants, Indian women carrying their burdens on their backs, and sleepy, tired soldiers.

is begun
begun
was beginning
begin

13. Like sentinels on guard, the slender spikes of monkshood __________ straight and tall among the grasses and herbs of moist mountain meadows.

stand
are stood
will be stood
was standing

14. ___________ immense chasms filled with realistic rock forms resembling Oriental cities and castles of the Middle Ages.

Bryce Canyon have
In Bryce Canyon are
Bryce Canyon are having
This Bryce Canyon was had

15. Now a new way in tooth cleaning, different in formula and effect, __________ in the special film-removing dentifrice.

embodies
is embodied
had embodied
will be embodying

Answers: C , C, A , A, D , C, B , A, B , B, D, C, A, B, B

 

 
SIMPLE SENTENCE: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE

1.  In __________, the crime rate has begun to drop due to neighborhood watch programs.

the past few years
a few years ago
few years
a few years since

2.  Three responsibilities ________ are to search out, identify, and assess patentable inventions and technologies.

to a patent manager
with
a patent manager
on
a patent manager
of
a patent manager

3.  Disappointingly, many software companies have discovered a limited audience for ________ from the couch.

Web surfing
Web
to surf
to
Web surf
Web
surfs

4.  Shooting stars, otherwise known as meteorites, often fall to Earth in a pattern dictated ________ and Earth rotation.

to solar winds
by
solar winds
on
solar winds
which
solar winds

5.  Ink stains, commonly regarded __________ difficult stains to remove, will not succumb to the usual array of detergents and cleaners found in supermarkets.

as the most
to
the most
in
the most
through
the most

6.  Examples of selective use __________ are found in commercial leaf removal prior to harvest in the cotton and sugar beet industries.

of defoliants
by
defoliants
in
defoliants
through
defoliants

7.  Ethyl cyanoacetate is derived __________ of an alkali cyanide and chloroacetic ethyl ester.

at the reaction
from the reaction
to the reaction
above
the reaction

8.  On the second level of mammalian evolution, that __________ mammals or marsupials, the eggs are practially yolkless.

to the pouching
of the pouched
in the pouches
by
the pouchable

9.  Foraging ants make a network __________ around the nest .

inside roads
by
roads
of
roads
to
roading

10.  __________ its richness and varied coloring, Schubert 's Symphony in C has enjoyed a deserved reputation among classical music lovers.

Renowning by
Renownable
to
Renowned for
Renowning
with

11. The calyx and the corona buttercups were the first to know their own mind and to __________ their composition.

settle in
settle with
settle to
settle upon

12. To further the important study of solar radiation ___________ long range weather forecasting, the organization appropriated over ten percent of its budget.

as relation with
for relation on
by relation of
in relation to

13. Each part of the Hamilton watch is fashioned __________ the minutest precision and perfection of finish.

at
around
to
as

14. Once in China, the tourist may shop in quaint bazaars ___________ silks, laces, and jade.

in
for
on
at


15. The first convent was established __________ 1529, only eight years after the Spanish conquest of the region.

in Oaxaca in
at Oaxaca on
on Oaxaca by
to Oaxaca since

Answers: A , D, A , B, A , A, B , B, C , C, D, D, B, A

 

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SIMPLE SENTENCE: SUBJECT

1.  __________ was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the photoelectric effect.

That Einstein
It was Einstein
Einstein who
Einstein


2.  ________ of Willa Catha present an unadorned picture of life on the prairies of the Midwestern United States during the 19th century.

The stories who
That
the novels
The
novels which
The
novels

3.  Unlike the climate of the other islands of Hawaii, ________ Kona contains 54 different temperate zones.

that of
this
is
these
are
those
that

4.  With few exceptions, ________ are warm-blooded , have live births, and are suckled with milk from their mother’s body.

which mammals
mammals
mammals
that
mammals , they

5.  Among all the scientists of the 1930s, ________ was so suited to carry out the Manhattan project as J. Robert Oppenheimer.

no scientists
not
who was a scientist
none
a
scientist never he

6.  By the time of the appearance of "Paulus ", __________ was widely recognized as the most famous living composer.

it was Felix Mendelssohn
Felix
Mendelssohn who
Felix
Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn whom

7.  __________ is as widespread in the U. S. as the grey squirrel, an animal actually classified as a rodent .

No mammal
Not
a mammal which
None mammal
Not a mammal that

8.  In the quiet of the woods, __________ sometimes hears the thrush breaking snail shells.

the one
one
ones
those
ones

9.  __________ is a growing practice in cooperative farming associations to pool and sell the fruit as a common commodity under the brands of the association rather than to sell the fruit of each grower separately .

There
One
It
, which
Why

10.  The __________ the forest reached their highest price in the 1980s .

products of
productions by
producers to
products with

11. __________ amazing curiosities of the northwestern topographical area of Chile.

They are few
Some
There are any
It is one of the

12. Made of white silk appliqued on maroon satin, __________, found in the smoking room of the colonial palace, form a festive backdrop.

figure
it is this figure
there is a figure
these figures

13. __________ wonders on the fair faces, delicate tissues, and individual forms of a large variety of plant species.

Environment work
There is environement work
Environment works
It is the environment that work


14. _________  were bound together by so many strong ties as those pioneer families pushing westward across the United States in the 1800s.

None was a family
There were no families
Not many families
None but the family

15. When properly designed, _________  a simple dignity because of its pure architectural contours.

marble mortuary stones reflect
the marble mortuary stone reflects
a marble mortuary stone that reflects
marble mortuary stones which reflect

Answers: D , D, A , B, C , C, A , B, A , A, D, D, C, C, B

 

 

SIMPLE SENTENCE: CONNECTOR

1.  Emma Thompson was nominated for an Academy Award as both a screenwriter __________ an actress in 1996.

also
or
in addition
and

2.  With neither a naturally aggressive disposition ________ particularly large size, the mimic octopus survives quite easily because of its natural adaptations.

and a
with
its
nor
a
or
its

3.  Above-ground swimming pools have ________ the flexibility of being able to be moved from place to place but also the efficiency of using less water than standard in- ground pools.

that
all
in
addition
not
only

4.  Life in the Sahara has many negative features including aridity and high temperatures but many positive aspects ________.

in addition to
as
well
coupled
with
plus

5.  As a universal language, Esperanto has never really gained widespread acceptance ________ its lack of native speakers.

because
as
a result
in
order to
due
to

6.  Readily soluble in sulfuric and nitric acid, mercury is __________ birth defects can easily result from its ingestion by pregnant women.

such poisonous that
so
poisonous that
too
poisonous that
very
poisonous that

7.  Synthetic polymers may be __________ thermoplastic or thermosetting depending on the action of tolylene diisocyanate.

both
as
well as
but
also
either

8.  Road conditions in the United States suffered a severe setback __________ the Civil War.

as a result of
because
despite
in
spite of the fact that

9. __________ other mollusks, the oyster reproduces by eggs.

Like
As
to
Regarding
With

10. The introduction of the Japanese persimmon into the United States aroused widespread interest throughout the country __________ the precocity of the trees and the large size and great beauty of the fruit.

on account of
because
nevertheless
owing
with

11. The white enamel surface is __________ to keep clean in the bathroom, or in any other room, as porcelain.

so easy
such that easy
as easy
too easy

12. Colima's isolated, beautifully-shaped cone, is often hidden by masses of dense steam __________, colored red at night from the spewing lava.

also smoke
and smoke
beside smoke
its smoke

13. The true lilies developed their beauty __________ an evident need for greater insect pollination.

because
in answer to
so that
as with

14. When purchasing a Valentine's Day gift, male customers, according to all surveys, tend to lean toward either a bouquet of red roses purchased online __________ found at a local supermarket.

and a box of chocolates
also a box of chocolates
a box of chocolates
or a box of chocolates

15. A retailer must be aware of not only the competition from local stores but also the vagaries of __________ and taste.

both fashion
some fashion
nor fashion
as well

Answers: D, C, D, B, D, B, D, A, A, A,C, B, B, D, A

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SIMPLE SENTENCE: WORD ORDER

1.  Because of its warm tropical climate, Hawaii __________ subzero temperatures.

almost experiences never
experiences never almost
experiences almost never
almost never experiences

2.  In flush financial times, ________ on Wall Street may employ as many as 800 stock brokers and managers.

a brokerage typical stock
typically
stock, a brokerage
a
stock typical brokerage
a
typical stock brokerage

3.  Even at the peak of its power, the circulating column of air at the core of a tornado ________ in excess of 250 miles per hour.

almost never reaches
reaches
almost never
almost
reaches never
reaches
never almost

4.  Among the many unusual creatures of the high Nepalese forests _________ with genetic ties hearkening back to the time of mammoths.

a breed is of unusual elephants
is
an unusual breed of elephants
an
unusual breed is of elephants
elephants
are an unusual breed

5.  Not only __________ a strong swimmer but also, as its name suggests, it can walk for miles with little rest.

the booby blue footed is
the
blue footed booby is
is
the blue footed booby
footed
is the booby blue

6.  "Earth" is a __________ appearing in somewhat impure or diluted form.

naturally occurring metal oxide
occurred
naturally oxide metal
oxide
metal occurring naturally
metal
occurring naturally oxide

7.  Wagner's son, Siegfried, was __________ despite being devoid of originality and force.

a man young, talented extremely
a
young man, extremely talented
a
talented young man extremely
an
extremely talented young man

8.  __________, Buffon, studied tree sloths intensively before dying in 1788.

The great French naturalist
The
naturally great French
The
French greatly natural
Naturally
, the great French

9.  __________ the import trade appreciate the proportion of imported food and drug stuffs.

Few persons not associated with
Not
few persons associated with
Associated
with not a few persons
With
not a few persons associated,

10.  Beaver dams vary in size from __________ to branchy shrubbed obstacles thwarting the flow of water.

log barriers large
large log barriers
barriers
log large
log
large barriers

11. Elephantine appetites make kindling of Botswana's _________.

northern large riverine forests
riverine large forests riverine
large northern riverine forests
large riverine northern forests

12. Threatened with prison for debts ___________, Peale fled to Boston in 1765 on horseback.

of some three hundred dollars
some of the three hundred dollars
of three hundred dollars were some
of three hundred some dollars

13. The Previa's __________ provides easy access to the vehicle's optional DVD system.

contoured uniquely design interior
interior design contoured uniquely
uniquely contoured interior design
design contoured uniquely interior

14. Amoco, a once powerful oil company, specialized in ___________.

regional plants polystyrene recycling
regional polystyrene recycling plants
polystyrene plants regional recycling
plants recycling polystyrene regional

15. An __________Seretse Khama helped guide central Africa into its post-colonial period.

educated jazz Oxford buff
Oxford buff jazz educated
Oxford educated jazz buff
educated Oxford buff jazz

Answers: D , D, A , B, C , A, D , A, A , B, C, A, C, B, C

 

SIMPLE SENTENCE: INFINITIVE

1.  From the inception of his long and distinguished career, Frank Lloyd Wright was concerned with how __________ architecture with topography.

integrating
to integrate
did he integrate
integrated

2.  Legendary home of the Nabateans, Petra is known ________ housed more than 15 ,000 residents at one time.

to have
to
be
is
which

3.  Unless an observer knows ________ an eclipse properly, severe retinal and cornea damage can result.

to observing
how
observing
how
to observe
to
have observed

4.  Sibling confrontations containing the seeds of unrequited hostility can serve ________ familial difficulties lasting for years.

the creation of
to
create
creating
that
creates

5.  Judging from the blurry image of his right leg in many of his “seated ” photographs, Abraham Lincoln is thought ________ from Marfon’s Disease.

to suffer
to
be suffering
to
have suffered
to
have been suffered

6.  The most important function of the Department of Agriculture is __________ for providing a sufficient and wholesome supply of food for the nation 's people .

when supplying the means
to
supply the means
to
have supplied the means
that
to supply the means

7.  Knowing __________ the alarm for an impending earthquake is a crucial problem confronting seismologists.

when to sound
to
have sounded
that
to sound
to
sound that

8.  The Asiatic wild ass, otherwise known as the "onager," is famed for knowing __________ fast.

running
to
run
how to run
how
to have run

9.  Lafon's reagent, a solution of ammonium or sodium selenite , finds use as a test __________ codeine.

detection
to
detect
to
have detected
to
detectable

10.  Thomas Edison is generally considered _________ one of the most productive of all inventors.

to be
to
have been
being
who
was

TOEFL Answers: B , A, C , B, C , B, A , C, B , B.

 

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SIMPLE SENTENCE: PARALLEL STRUCTURE

1.  Egyptian pyramids were regularly robbed despite their intricate passageways, byzantine mazes, and __________.

walls which were false
they had false walls
false walls
walls of falsity

2.  In the years following the American Revolution and prior to the establishment of a national government , Washington provided the fledgling country with keen economic insight, _________, and astute international judgment.

a recognition of stability that was domestic
to
stabilize the domestic situation
which
was domestically stable
a
sense of domestic stability

3.  Despite the appearance of being merely pests, ants can serve a garden by eliminating other bothersome insects and ________.

they can aerate the soil
aerating
the soil
to
aerate the soil
that
can aerate the soil

4.  From Wrangell Island to Anchorage, Alaskan glacial formations rival those ________ and ones located in northern Canada .

found in Antarctica
which
are found in Antarctica
finding
in Antarctica
they
find in Antarctica

5.  The undergirding of cars is adversely affected ________ and excessive jostling .

in extremely salty
by extreme salinity
which
is extremely salty
with
salt that is extreme

6.  The red- headed clytus is a close relative of the banded ash borer and __________ considerable damage to the wood of dead and dying ash .

doing
to do
its
does

7.  The continued use of the soils of the Ozark region is no longer possible because of a number of factors, both natural and __________.

those of which are artificial
artificial
artificially
artificiality

8.  The common puffin is a member of the very well -defined family of auks , including _________, guillemonts, razorbills, and the extinct greak auk .

those little auks
the auks which are little
little auks
auks that are little

9.  Aluminum, __________, ductile metal, is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust.

a silver
that
is a silversmith
a
silvery
that
is silver

10.  Comparing __________ with a melody by Rossini or a scherzo by Beethoven, brings into focus the difference between schools of music

a Jensonian nocturne
a
nocturne which belongs to Jensen
a
nocturne whose Jensen
a nocturne by Jensen

Answers: C , D, B , A, B , D, B , C, C , D

 
SIMPLE SENTENCE: APPOSITIVE

1.  The Duncan sofa, __________ is highly valued in today 's antique furniture market.

a colonial masterpiece,
a colonial masterpiece which
it is a colonial masterpiece that
whose colonial masterpiece

2.  Ulysses S . Grant, ________, showed great magnanimity in receiving the surrender of his arch-rival,  Robert E . Lee at the end of the Civil War.

that was the supreme commander of Northern forces
who
supremely commanding Northern forces
he
was the supreme commander of Northern forces
the
supreme commander of Northern forces

3.  Though renowned for his work with the deaf, Alexander Graham Bell is best remembered for his invention of the telephone, ________.

that it was an invention of ingenuity and impact
it
was an invention of ingenuity and impact
an
invention of ingenuity and impact
invention
ingeniously and impaction

4.  Mars, __________, has been a source of human fascination for untold generations of sky gazers.

the fourth planet from the Sun
it
is the fourth planet from the Sun
which
the fourth planet from the Sun is it
is
it the fourth planet from the Sun

5.  Of all the saturated vegetable oils, coconut oil, ________, has the greatest concentration of polysaturated oils.

that derived it from the meat of the coconut
it
is derived from the meat of the coconut
derived
from the meat of the coconut
is
derived it from the meat of the coconut

6.  Recently, severe management problems have afflicted Coca-Cola, __________.

which is a large multinational corporation
a large multinational corporation
there is a large multinational corporation
a large multinational corporation is it

7.  Chopin, a famous Polish composer, died at Place Vendome, ___________.

a famous Paris square
it is a famous Paris square
a famous Paris square which
that is a famous Paris square

8.  Henry and June, __________ was bowdlerized at first publication .

what a novel of sexual exploration
it is a novel of sexual exploration
which it explored sexuality,
a
novel of sexual exploration,

9.  Arachidic acid , __________ is used in organic synthesis, lubricating greases, waxes, and plastics.

a widely distributed but minor component of the fats of peanut oils and related plant species,

widely distributed, it is a minor component of the fats of peanut oils and related plant species

a minor component of the fats of peanut oils and related plant species that it is widely distributed

a minor component widely distributed of the fats of peanut oils and related plant species

10.  The common sand crab, __________, carries a small garden on top of its shell.

which it is Hyas araneus
is it Hyas araneus
there it is Hyas araneus
Hyas araneus

Answers: A , D, C , A, C , B, A , D, A , D

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