PBT STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION
GRAMMAR REVIEW 2: COMPLEX SENTENCES

 

 

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COMPLEX SENTENCE: ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

 

1. Dubbing is an audio process __________ one sound over another sound.

imprints
that imprints it
which imprints

that it imprints

 

2. Thomas Jefferson, _______ of fathering several children by one of his slaves, was supposedly committed to the principle of equal rights for all.

in that he was accused
that
was accused
he
was accused
who
was accused

 

3. The cheetah is a member of the feline family _______ are being drastically reduced by in-breeding and lion predation.

whose numbers
those
numbers
that
its numbers
its
numbers that

 

4. Wrap-around sound, a process patented by Dolby, is an audio device _______ the moviegoer in the center of the action.

puts
that
puts them
that
they put
that
puts

 

5. Coca-Cola, begun in an Atlanta drugstore in 1888, remains a powerful beverage company _______ with numerous smaller food producers.

that has merged
that
merged it
which
merging
whose
to merge

 

6. The next point __________ is at the sawmill.

at which it is important to put a check upon wood waste
by
which that is important to put a check upon wood waste
that
is important to put a check upon wood waste
important
to put a check upon wood waste

 

7. Carl Maria von Weber was one of those peculiar types __________, round whom the darker shadows of the world may close for years almost unnoticed.

that always young in animal spirits
whom
always young in spirits animal
who
are always young in animal spirits
they
are always young in animal spirits

 

8. Grieg went out into his own fertile by-way, leaving the broad valley for the narrower region __________.

to exploring for the first time
that
explored for the first time
in
it the first time of exploration
which
he explored for the first time

 

9. When speaking of the social mammals, there are other conditions of life, however, __________ that the newly born young one should be put on the spot almost at once because the situation is full of danger.

in that it is necessary
in
which it is necessary
if
it is necessary
that
they are necessary

 

10. In many ways, the most striking of the carniverous plants in the Venus Fly-trap, __________.

it grows in marshy places in Carolina
that
growing in marshy places in Carolina
which
it grows in marshy places in Carolina
which
grows in marshy places in Carolina

Answers: C, D, A, D, A , A, C, D, B, D

 

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COMPLEX SENTENCE: ADVERB CLAUSE.

 

1. __________ they are widely perceived as gentle creatures, hippopotamuses are responsible for more human deaths in Africa than any other animal.

Despite of
Even though
In spite of
Nonetheless

 

2. _______a cold front meets a warm front, an area of turbulent air is created often producing thunderstorms and tornadoes.

And
When
That
However

 

3. _______ he worked with the deaf for many years and patented many devices to help them, Alexander Graham Bell will forever be remembered for inventing the telephone.

Even though
In
spite of
Despite
Nevertheless

 

4. Battles between ancient armies were usually fought _______ crucial trading rout, fertile agricultural fields, or important sources of water were found..

those
wherever
not
only
what

 

5. The Indian variety of crocodile is the most widely researched crocodile in the world _______ anatomical structure is so unusual.

because its
because
of its
it
is because
is
because

6. It is in many cases an advantage if an animal can remain perfectly still, and in a general way it may be said that an animal in danger in most likely to be detected __________.

movement
when
it moves
then
it moves
when
does it move

7. A type of oil-base paint containing binders that form a film by oxidation or polymerization __________ is called an enamel.

because it exposes to air
in
that its exposure to air
which
they are exposed to air
when
they are exposed to air

8. Under the government of William Penn, the roads of Pennsylvania were given over to the county courts, which appointed overseers, __________.

while the grand jury laid out the roads
unless
the grand jury laid them out the roads
nevertheless
, the grand jury laid out the roads
because
of the grand jury laid out the roads

 

9. Lookout ridges are of little value __________ there is no way to get to it quickly because of a lack of trails, or no way to call for immediate help.

if after the fire is discovered
if
the fire is discovered
after
the fire is discovered
at
which the fire is discovered

 

10. ___________ --it may in extreme cases occupy almost half the shell--the egg is known as "shrunken."

After the air space inside an egg pronounces it
While
the air space inside an egg is pronouncing it
When
the air space inside an egg becomes pronounced
Unless
the air space inside an egg pronounces it

Answers: B, B, A, B, A, B, D, A, A,

 

University of California, Davis

 

COMPLEX SENTENCE: MAIN VERB.

 

1. Economics __________ is known as an inexact science because it relies heavily on variables and subjective judgements.

is what
it
which

that it

 

2. Not all currencies that are brokered on the world’s major stock exchanges _______ enough to generate windfall profits for the everyday investor.

valued
to
be valuable
of
value
are
valuable

 

3. Written mail, which is currently referred to as “snailmail” by frequent computer users, _______ by email and other electronic technologies.

is being slowly transformed
will
have been slowly transformed
slowly
transforms
was
slowly transformed

 

4. Among American football aficionados, the tackling of the quarterback behind the line of scrimmage _______ known as a “sack.”

is what is
what
is
has
what
that
is

 

5. Airport x-ray devices _______ designed more carefully in order to detect the more sophisticated forms of explosive materials that are now produced.

must have been
must
must
be
must
have been being

 

6. Emerging in the spring or summer as an elongate, brownish to black beetle, the grub with its velvety body __________ in length from 9 to 10 mm.

which has ranged
it
will have ranged
ranges
range

 

7. In Europe, a definite system of locating the annual cuttings __________ in the management of communal and government forests because under this system the forests can be so organized that an approximately equal yield is secured each year.

is extensively used
extensively
uses
has
extensively used
will
have extensively used

 

8. The total of livestock of all kinds which used the National Agricultural System in 1910 under pay permits __________ 2.75% in comparison with the previous year.

laid off
fired
off
fell
off
carried
off

 

9. __________ in his grand operas, Rinsky-Korsakov six times dealt with fantastic and but twice with real or historical subjects.

Which of that will observe
It
will be observed that
When
will it be observed
Observing
that when

 

10. To Darwin we __________ that has made the interrelations of organisms central in modern natural history.

have owed the change
owing
the change
the
change do owe
owe
the change

 

Answers: A, D, A, A, C, C, A, C, B, D

 

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COMPLEX SENTENCE: WORD ORDER

 

1. Capable of producing nothing more than __________, Barkley was forced to concede the point to Hume who went on to win the debate.

vacuous truly a point
truly a point vacuous
vacuous a truly point
a truly vacuous point

 

2. Out of the grave of the European Middle Ages _______ with its new ideas about the place of humanity in the cosmos.

coming the Renaissance
came
the Renaissance
the
Renaissance came
the
Renaissance which came

 

3. An excellent cosmetologist in even the most unsophisticated hair salon can make a man seem to have more hair than _______.

has actually he
he
actually has
it
actually is
is
it actually

4. Only after extreme territorial disputes usually involving females _______ to killing each other.

male chimpanzees resort
do
male chimpanzees resort
male
chimpanzees resorted
resorting
are male chimpanzees

 

5. _______ constructed with concrete blocking experience the insect problems of termites and silverfish that wooden houses have.

Seldom houses
Houses
seldom
Seldom
do houses
Houses
so seldom

 

6. __________ sort of winter means cold, stormy weather, a short daylight, and a scarcity of fruits, seeds, insects, and slugs that animals can consume.

Even an ordinary
Ordinary
, an even
An
ordinary, even
Ordinary
even an

7. Besides the fact that it can walk, the crayfish has another __________, by swimming.

quite of means different locomotion
different
means of quite locomotion
quite
different means of locomotion
locomotion
of means quite different

 

8. In the fiscal year 1910, the __________ was 16 cents per pound before it was distributed to retail outlets.

tea value of average import
import
average value of tea
average
import value of tea
average
value of import tea

 

9. Chestnut bark disease may be controlled by a efficient pruning system, though this method is impractical with __________.

large trees, Japanese ornamental
Japanese
large ornamental trees
ornamental
Japanese large trees
large
Japanese ornamental trees

 

10. __________ the larger markets, soil stability must be achieved through changing technologies.

In the Eastern states closely adjacent to
Closely
in the Eastern states, adjacent to
Adjacent
closely in the Eastern states,
Adjacent
in the closely Eastern states,

Answers: D, B, B, B, C, A, C, C, D, A

 

COMPLEX SENTENCE: NOUN CLAUSE

 

1. Disturbances in seabed slope which have occurred over short periods of time have caused scientists to believe __________ more extensive than at first thought.

that tectonic drift is
which tectonic drift
tectonic drifts
tectonic drifting

 

2. _______ the manatee of south Florida is being pushed to the edge of extinction due to the invasion of its habitat by motorized boats has been shown by marine researchers.

In that
That
Although
Unless

 

3. Virtually all doctors agree ________ a second diagnosis in the event of a potentially major disease.

that patients should seek
patients should be sought
patients they seek
patients that should seek

 

4. _______ found in forests can possess deadly toxicity is an element of folk knowledge that has not been passed down to today’s general public.

Those certain mushrooms
That certain mushrooms
Despite it, certain are the mushrooms
Even though certain mushrooms

 

5. _______ continue to pollute the ocean with all forms of contamination from sewage to solid wastes such as plastic containers remains a mystery to environmentalists.

Although people
People that
Why people
Those people that

 

6. __________ and have low refractive indices, low dielectric constants, and low surface tensions has long been known by chemists.

Those fluorocarbons are more volatile and denser than corresponding hydrocarbons
That fluorocarbons are more volatile and denser than corresponding hydrocarbons
While fluorocarbons are more volatile and denser than corresponding hydrocarbons
When fluorocarbons are more volatile and denser than corresponding hydrocarbons

 

7. __________ advances and broadens our understanding of the complex problems of soil fertility.

Whatever adds to the biochemical knowledge of soils
When it adds that to the biochemical knowledge of soils
While it is added to the biochemical knowledge of soils
Whomever adds to the biochemical knowledge of soils

 

8. It is safe to say __________ does not exceed 25%.

because the average efficiency of the best steam engine
which the average efficiency of the best steam engine
that the average efficiency of the best steam engine
with the average efficiency of the best steam engine

 

9. There is no doubt _________ correspond to the gill clefts which are used in connection with the breathing in fishes.

because of the minute slits which are seen in embryonic reptile and birds
despite the fact that the minute slits which are seen in embryonic reptile and birds
if the minute slits which are seen in embryonic reptile and birds
that the minute slits which are seen in embryonic reptiles and birds

 

10. Blame for the invention of nuclear weapons must fall upon __________.

however conceived their invention in the first place
whenever conceived their invention in the first place
whatsoever conceived their invention in the first place
whoever conceived their invention in the first place

Answers: A, B, A, B, C, B, A, C, D, D

 

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COMPLEX SENTENCE: MAIN SUBJECT

 

1. Gifted though he was by remarkable natural musical talent, _________ to have had little knack for the necessities of social life at court.

Mozart, who seemed
Mozart seemed
it was Mozart that seeming
Mozart, seeming

 

2. Long before dogs became domesticated in Western countries, ______ roamed the forests and grasslands of northern Europe and America.

they
which
however
and

 

3. Able to sing religious arias in Latin by the time she was four, ________ reported to have a repertory of some 10,000 songs.

that Margaret Church is
Margaret Church who
Margaret Church is
Margaret Church is who

 

4. Mentored as she was by Gertrude Stein, _______ an unusual style of narrative which imitated but did not rival that of her teacher.

was Alice B. Toklas developing
who Alice B. Toklas had developed
whom Alice B. Toklas, developer of
Alice B. Toklas developed

 

5. _______ currently working in the field of physics can adequately explain the intricacies of string theory to the extent that Stephen Hawking can.

Few scientists
Few are the scientists
The scientists are few
The few scientists

 

6. __________ generally conceded that the respiration calorimeter devised and perfected by Atwood and his associates adequately meets the requirements of the field.

There is
It is
There it is that
It is that

 

7. When the eggs from the country storekeeper of the farmer himself were received at the packing house, __________.

it was candled
it was they which were candled
they were candled
they were those which were candled

 

8. No matter what people may say, __________ as stupid is very wide of the mark.

to speak of the donkey
the donkey
the donkey that
it is the donkey that

 

9. Influenced by Ross, and worthy of being linked with him, __________, who proved in 1900 that the vehicle of the deadly yellow fever organism is the common house mosquito of tropical America.

who was Walter Reed
was Walter Reed
Walter Reed was
Walter Reed

 

10. __________ can be artificially connected with levers so that it draws a record of its movement on a graph.

A muscle that
Such a muscle that
It is a muscle which it
A muscle

Answers: B, A, C, D, A, B, C, A, B, D

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